# Introduction to Spreadsheets – Live Excel Demo

Hello, this video contains the guided practical found here: Create a simple Spreadsheet.

This class was recorded on Wednesday 13th January 2021.

© 2021  Vedesh Kungebeharry. All rights reserved.

# Spreadsheets: Introduction, definition & terminology

See the video below which introduces spreadsheet software

## Terminology

Spreadsheet – an electronic document in which data is arranged in the rows and columns of a grid and can be manipulated and used in calculations.

Oxford English Dictionary via google. (https://www.google.com/search?q=define+spreadsheet&oq=define+spreadsheet&aqs=chrome..69i57j0l7.4183j1j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8)

A Spreadsheet consists as a grid of many cells.

Cell – A single location in a spreadsheet that can store data. It is the intersection of a row and column

row – A horizontal arrangement of cells , usually denoted by a number

column – a vertical arrangement of cells ,usually denoted by a letter, cell,

value – the data that is stored in a cell.

formula – a representation for a calculation stored within a cell. The formula itself is not displayed, rather, the results of the calculation is displayed in the cell.

range – a group of cells; can be a group of horizontal cells, a group of vertical cells, a block of cells, or even many different blocks of cells.

worksheet – a single spreadsheet in a workbook.

workbook – a file , consisting of many worksheets (individual spreadsheets). A workbook is a file which is comprised of 1 or more worksheets (spreadsheets)

(last updated Monday 11th January 2021)

© 2020  Vedesh Kungebeharry. All rights reserved.

# Presentation Software.

Presentation software is used to display information one slide at a time. The term “slide” can be thought of as a single poster used to display a small number of points or a single idea.

Presentation software was made to mimic the behaviour of a traditional slide projector.

Many slides are displayed one at a time by the presenter. The presenter can include the following items on slides:

• Text – including short points on the topic being presented.  Text is usually held within a Textbox.
• Shapes – including pre defined  shapes e.g circle, square etc.
• Images: users can insert downloaded images, or provided clip art.
• Charts: the presentation software provides facilities for creating and inserting various chart types including bar, line, pie charts etc.
• Animations – Objects can be set in motion on any slide. Objects include images, shapes, text boxes etc.
• Transitions – Slides transform from one to the next in one smooth animation.

Example of presentation software are Microsoft Powerpoint  and Prezi.

Required reading :

Students to study Presentations in a full context: http://www.teach-ict.com/gcse_new/software/presentation/miniweb/index.htm

© 2020 Vedesh Kungebeharry. All rights reserved

# Repetition (Iteration) Constructs

Consider the following example:

Find the sum of 10 numbers provided by the user.

This can be accomplished as follows:

The above solution is very long as well as difficult to understand , manipulate and communicate .

Observe that there were many repeated steps in obtaining input from the user.

The solution can be simplified by looping.

A general looping construct is shown below:

The solution can be simply implemented using looping:

Class Discussion: walk-through of solution is discussed.

This files used in this post can be downloaded here:

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1KjNcPQATyqh8quxnRjUDbJOgdzGvUY1P?usp=sharing

### Homework:

Create an algorithm which uses repetition to output  the 12 times table from 1 to 12.

### Updates

2022-10-6: Added files used in this post.

© 2020  Vedesh Kungebeharry. All rights reserved.

# The Selection Construct

Sometimes we wish to change the order of processing based on certain conditions.

This can be accomplished by using a selection construct pictured below:

We will examine this in the following example:

Jim is a salesman for an auto car company. If his total sales for the week exceeds \$10000 he is rewarded a sales commission of 8 percent of the sale, if not he is awarded no commission.

Create a flowchart algorithm which accepts the total sales and outputs the commission.

### Exercise:

The problem is modified such that  if the total sales were less than \$10000 he would receive a commission of 4 percent. See changes below:

Jim is a salesman for an auto car company. If his total sales for the week exceeds \$10000 he is rewarded a sales commission of 8 percent of the total sales, if not he is awarded a commission of 4 percent.

Create a flowchart algorithm which accepts the total sales and outputs the commission.

Draw a flowchart for the modified scenario.

© 2020  Vedesh Kungebeharry. All rights reserved.

# Algorithms In Narrative Form

An algorithm in narrative form is not written in discrete steps.   It is expressed as directions in paragraph form and instructions on how rules should be followed.

An algorithm in narrative form can be considered a precursor to pseudocode or a flowchart

## Example

An example is given below for the given problem statement

Problem Definition: A solution is needed which finds the circumference of a circle.

Algorithm in narrative form: Prompt the user to enter a non-negative value for the radius and store it. If the radius entered is negative or is not a number, keep on prompting the user and accept values until a suitable value is entered.  Use the formula C=2*3.14* r to calculate and store the circumference. Output the circumference to the user and stop processing.

## In class exercise

Write an algorithm in narrative form which gives instructions/directions on how to follow the rules in order to play “Snakes and ladders”.

© 2020  Vedesh Kungebeharry. All rights reserved.

# Threats to Computer and Data Security

Recall that Software is a set of instructions that can be executed by a computer system. System software is used to maintain hardware resources, while application software solves end user problems.

There are, however, other categories of software which are meant to be malicious and disruptive to the computer system.

## Homework

Research and make brief notes on the following terms:

Computer viruses, malware, spam, anti- virus, firewall

© 2020  Vedesh Kungebeharry. All rights reserved.

# INFORMATION PROTECTION AND MISUSE

### Copyright

Copyright is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution. This is usually only for a limited time.

### Plagiarism

Plagiarism the practice of taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own.

### Consequences

Discussion:

What are some of the consequences of

1. Copyright infringement.
2. Plagiarism

Answers:
Copyright:

• The infringer pays a dollar amount in damages and profits
• A court can impound the illegal works
• The infringer can go to jail

Plagiarism:

• If copyright infringement occurs, dollar amounts in damages may be charged and possible jail time.
• The plagiarized work can be destroyed.
• If you are in school  you may get expelled or barred from writing exams.
• Awards and grades due to plagiarized work may be revoked.
• Can result in being fired from your job.
• You may gain a reputation of being untrustworthy.

### Homework and Portfolio Work:

Create a list of legal and ethical consequences for

1. Copyright infringement
2. Plagiarism

Complete the homework in your ICT Notebook.
Create a hand written copy of your homework for insertion into your IT portfolio.

This assignment will be marked.

Required reading:

http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/what-is-plagiarism/

© 2020  Vedesh Kungebeharry. All rights reserved.

# Create a simple Spreadsheet

## Research and Guided Practical

### Class Task 1:Research

1.Give definitions and a labelled diagram for the following terms:

worksheet, cell, cell address, range, row , column.

2. Create and save spreadsheet document  which replicates the following arrangement:
[a student report cart , Subject and marks]

### Class Task 2: Guided Practical

Create and save spreadsheet document  which replicates the following arrangement:

Use formulas to calculate the maximum mark and totals for each student.

© 2020  Vedesh Kungebeharry. All rights reserved.

# Presentation Software

Presentation software is used to display information one slide at a time. The term “slide” can be thought of as a single poster used to display a small number of points or a single idea.

Presentation software was made to mimic the behaviour of a traditional slide projector.

Many slides are displayed one at a time by the presenter. The presenter can include the following items on slides:

Text – including short points on the topic being presented.  Text is usually held within a Textbox.

• Shapes – including pre defined  shapes e.g circle, square etc.
• Images: users can insert downloaded images, or provided clip art.

• Charts: the presentation software provides facilities for creating and inserting various chart types including bar, line, pie charts etc.
• Animations – Objects can be set in motion on any slide. Objects include images, shapes, text boxes etc.
• Transitions – Slides transform from one to the next in one smooth animation.

Example of presentation software are Microsoft Powerpoint  and Prezi.

## Required reading :

Students to study Presentations in a full context: http://www.teach-ict.com/gcse_new/software/presentation/miniweb/index.htm

## Updates to this post

Feb 2nd , 2022 – Improved readability of post, removed broken links.

© 2020 Vedesh Kungebeharry. All rights reserved